FAQs

Insurance

Is business interruption covered in insurance policies?

Algeria - Bourabiat Associés

Business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses either as part of property insurance coverage or as a standalone product. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage or other casualty.

Ethiopia - Mesfin Tafesse & Associates

Yes, in Ethiopia business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses as part of property insurance coverage. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage or other casualty.

Business interruption policy is recognised as a pecuniary insurance separate from but very closely connected with material damage insurance. It compensates lost income/profit which would have been achieved by the business if the interruption to the business had never occured. However, it is not as of yet issued as a standalone product, but rather in association with other types of material damage cover of commercial property risks.

Kenya - Anjarwalla & Khanna

Business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses either as part of property insurance coverage or as a standalone product. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage or other casualty.

In our experience, the prevalent form of business interruption cover taken by businesses in the Kenyan market is that included as part of a commercial property insurance coverage. However, there are instances where specialised forms of business interruption cover are taken in certain industries as stand-alone covers, for instance in the hospitality industry.

Malawi - Savjani & Co.

This will depend on the specific contents of each insurance policy.

Mauritius - BLC Robert & Associates

This will depend on the specific contents of each specific insurance policy.

Morocco - BFR & Associés

Business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses either as part of property insurance coverage or as a standalone product. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage or other casualty.

In our experience, the prevalent form of business interruption cover taken by businesses in the Moroccan market is included as part of a commercial property insurance coverage but the individual policy would need to be checked to see if the risk is appropriately covered.

The purpose of business interruption insurance is the place the insured company in the financial situation where it would have been if it had not been disturbed by the incident.

Nigeria - G.Elias & Co.

Although rarely, if ever, offered as a standalone product in Nigeria, the form of ‘business interruption’ cover businesses take in the Nigerian market is usually included as part of a commercial property insurance or comprehensive insurance coverage. Business interruption recoveries will only be paid out if the cause of the ‘business interruption’ loss is specifically covered by the insurance policy.

While ‘business interruption’ is not specifically provided for in Nigeria as a standalone product, with the prior approval of the National Insurance Commission (NAICOM) new products may be introduced into the Nigerian market by insurance companies apart from those provided for under the law. Section 16 of the Insurance Act, 2003.

Rwanda - K. Solutions & Partners

Business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses as an extension of property insurance coverage like fire. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage or other casualty.

In our experience, the prevalent form of business interruption cover taken by bus

Uganda - MMAKS Advocates

Business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses as an addition to property damage coverage or under the industrial all risks product. It is not typically a standalone product. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage by fire or other casualty.

In our experience, the prevalent form of business interruption cover taken by businesses in the Ugandan market is that included as an addition to property damage coverage such as fire and industrial all risks like machine breakdown. There are also instances where specialised forms of business interruption cover are taken in certain industries as stand-alone covers.

Zambia - Musa Dudhia & Co.

Yes.
In our experience, the prevalent form of business interruption cover taken by businesses in the Zambian market is oftenthat included as part of a broader insurance cover such as commercial property insurance coverage. So far we have not come across a stand-alone policy cover dealing exclusively with business interruption. as business interruption coverage is not sold separately. It is added to a property insurance policy or included in a package policy

UAE - Anjarwalla Collins & Haidermota

Business interruption cover is a form of insurance coverage typically procured by businesses either as part of property insurance coverage or as a standalone product. Business interruption cover is designed to assist policyholders to mitigate the loss of revenue or income due to their operations being affected by the designated cause, e.g. the occurrence of property damage.

In our experience, the prevalent form of business interruption cover taken by businesses in the UAE market is included as part of commercial property insurance coverage. However, there are instances where specialised forms of business interruption cover are taken in certain industries as stand-alone covers, for instance in the hospitality industry.

Would the cover extend to interruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic?

Ethiopia - Mesfin Tafesse & Associates

COVID-19 related claims: business interruption policy may not be issued as a standalone product. Hence, unless property insurance policy insured perils cause a damage or loss, business interruption policy may not cover interim expenses. Moreover, it has absolute exclusions that exist in most policies (such as epidemics, war or earthquake).

In relation to COVID-19 business interruption, questions may arise as to whether the underlying property insurance policy requirements have been met. For example, in circumstances where business premises or manufacturing facilities have been closed as part of a mandatory governmental order or voluntarily closed by the business owner as part of COVID-19 containment measures or out of fear of contamination, but the physical facilities are otherwise still habitable and uncontaminated, it is possible that a generic business interruption cover will not respond since there has been no property damage/no direct physical loss.

Business owners considering COVID-19 related insurance claims will also need to bear in mind the specific exclusions in their insurance policies which may preclude coverage. Generic commercial property insurance and business interruption policies will typically exclude damage arising from epidemics or pandemics. If the agreed cause of loss under the underlying property insurance policy is limited to specific peril such as fire or excludes epidemics such as COVID-19, the business interruption insurance policy associated with such underlying policy may not extend to cover interruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Malawi - Savjani & Co.

The terms of each policy have to be examined on a case by case basis.

Mauritius - BLC Robert & Associates

The terms of each policy have to be examined, policy-by-policy.

Morocco - BFR & Associés

In general in Morocco, there are three types of "business interruption" that may be covered by insurance:

Perils named without extension "other events":
Generally in this type of policy, the "health" peril doesn’t appear to be covered as much.

The limits are generally low and the conditions for acquiring cover are restrictive, for example, one must prove the presence of the virus or express closure ordered by the authorities.

All risks except (Tous Risques Sauf), two cases:

  • If the object of the guarantee is limited to pure "Material Damage", these policies would not be intended to have their guarantees mobilized;
  • If the object of the guarantee is to cover "Damage" or "Claims", the possibilities of coverage should be studied on a case-by-case basis using the broader definition of "damage" or through business interruption cover following an "event" or "loss" or "event" not excluded, and/or through extension clauses such as: "constraints", "illness/epidemic", "inaccessibility", "and customer disaffection “,” imminent threat".

In all cases, reference should be made to the exclusions in the relevant policy, which could limit or even exclude the loss.

Operating loss without damage:
Non-damage business interruption policies should be able to respond more effectively than standard property damage and consequential business interruption policies. However, the specific wording of the exclusions, including pandemic, could be a limit to the intervention of insurers.

The question of the number of events and therefore the number of franchises and limits arises when a company's interests are affected in several countries. This is generally not provided for in policies except for natural events, which is generally the only systemic risk which may be covered by the insurer depending on the policy.

Consequently, at present and in the absence of case law, it is not possible to affirm that the impact of COVID-19 would constitute material damage within the meaning of damage and business interruption policies.

Moreover, Moroccan insurance companies have already published an announcement that business interruption resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic would not be covered by them.
https://www.leconomiste.com/article/1059061-covid-19-pertes-dexploitation-les-assureurs-n-epongeront-pas-les-pertes.

Uganda - MMAKS Advocates

Business interruption cover does not typically include pandemics like COVID-19. These are categorically excluded under the exclusion clauses of the policy. Business owners considering COVID-19 related insurance claims must review the specific exclusions in their insurance policies to confirm coverage.

Designated Peril
Property damage policies typically require a designated peril or cause of loss (for example a fire or earthquake) in order for the insurance cover to respond. If the business interruption cover forms part of such a policy and the cause of the loss does not qualify as one of the designated perils, then coverage for business interruption will not apply.

Direct physical loss
Property damage policies also typically require direct physical loss to the property as well as proof of causation. Generally, direct physical loss would not include consequential or resulting economic losses to the business.

COVID-19 related claims
In the event of a claim for coronavirus-related business interruption, questions may arise as to whether the designated peril and direct physical loss requirements have been met.

For example, in circumstances where business premises or manufacturing facilities have been closed as part of a mandatory governmental order or voluntarily closed by the business owner as part of COVID-19 containment measures or out of fear of contamination, but the physical facilities are otherwise still habitable and uncontaminated, it is possible that a generic business interruption cover will not respond since there has been no property damage/no direct physical loss.

By contrast, if the premises have become physically contaminated and uninhabitable due to coronavirus, there may be a basis for a policyholder to claim that a direct physical loss has occurred. In order for a claim to be successful, however, COVID-19 has to be included among the insurable risks that the business extension policy can cover.

Bespoke business interruption coverage
While generic policies may not cover economic losses arising from the suspension or closure of operations due to COVID-19 control measures, bespoke insurance policies may respond to such losses. For instance, bespoke business interruption policies may be customised so as to respond to cover reduction of gross profit lost as a result of operational shutdowns and other business interruptions arising from communicable or infectious disease outbreaks. Such policies would respond even where there has been no physical loss or damage to property. Policies such as these are, however, not common place in Uganda.

Zambia - Musa Dudhia & Co.

Without reviewing The specific insurance policies policy  would need to be it is difficult to state whether insurance policies wouldreviewed to confirm that it extends to interruption caused by the COVID 19epidemics or pandemics.

However, from our discussion with various insurance providers, insurers in the market typically do not write coverage for known events for which the extent of potential damage is not easily understood.

Owing to the fact that business interruption cover is not sold as a separate product, most insurance policies relating to commercial property require damage to, or loss of, insured property as the trigger to cover for losses caused by interruption to business. Thus, manyMost businesses in Zambia would struggle to identify physical damage to property caused by COVID 19 or the reaction to it.

Additionally, business owners considering COVID-19 related insurance claims will also need to bear in mind the specific exclusions in their insurance policies which may preclude coverage. Generic commercial property insurance and business interruption policies will typically exclude damage arising from epidemics or pandemics

General

Designated Peril:
Commercial property insurance policies typically require a designated peril or cause of loss (for example a fire or earthquake) in order for the insurance cover to respond. If the business interruption cover forms part of such a policy and the cause of the loss does not qualify as one of the designated perils, then coverage for business interruption will not apply.

Direct physical loss:
Commercial property policies also typically require direct physical loss to the property as well as proof of causation. Generally, direct physical loss would not include consequential or resulting economic losses to the business. 

COVID-19 related claims:
In the event of a claim for coronavirus-related business interruption, questions may arise as to whether the designated peril and direct physical loss requirements have been met. 

For example, in circumstances where business premises or manufacturing facilities have been closed as part of a mandatory governmental order or voluntarily closed by the business owner as part of COVID-19 containment measures or out of fear of contamination, but the physical facilities are otherwise still habitable and uncontaminated, it is possible that a generic business interruption cover will not respond since there has been no property damage/no direct physical loss.

By contrast, if the premises have become physically contaminated and uninhabitable due to coronavirus, there may be a basis for a policyholder to claim that a direct physical loss has occurred.

Exclusions:
Business owners considering COVID-19 related insurance claims will also need to bear in mind the specific exclusions in their insurance policies which may preclude coverage. Generic commercial property insurance and business interruption policies will typically exclude damage arising from epidemics or pandemics. 

Bespoke business interruption coverage:
While generic policies may not cover economic losses arising from the suspension or closure of operations due to COVID-19 control measures, bespoke insurance policies may respond to such losses. For instance, bespoke business interruption policies for the hospitality and healthcare industries will often be customised so as to respond to loss from operational shutdowns and other business interruption arising from communicable or infectious disease outbreaks. Such policies would respond even where there has been no physical loss or damage to property.

What should businesses do/consider in relation to their insurance policies in light of the COVID-19 pandemic?

Algeria - Bourabiat Associés

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Carefully review along with their advisers the terms of their existing coverage to establish whether business interruption relating to COVID-19 or epidemics generally would be covered or excluded from cover and whether, even if there may be no exclusion from cover, whether proof of physical loss may affect the ability to recover from insurance.

  2. Going forward, businesses should avoid generic policies and carefully think through the practical risks and losses they are likely to face in an environment where such epidemics and disease outbreaks are no longer ‘black swan’ events and structure their insurance coverage so as to effectively respond to these risks.

  3. Insurers, insureds and brokers should work together to evaluate whether the present industry standard forms of commercial property and business interruption cover are ‘fit for purpose’ and to consider developing products that address the practical risks that businesses are facing at present and are likely to face in the future.
  4. For instance, consideration could be given to cover endorsements that extend cover to a contingent business interruption, that is, cover is extended to a business where its key suppliers (rather than the business itself) suffer physical losses to their property that impairs the supplier’s ability to deliver contracted goods or materials.
  5. Consideration could also be given to extension of cover to situations where although there has been no physical damage, governmental action such as a lockdown orders as part of epidemic containment measures, affects access to or use of the insured’s business premises.

Ethiopia - Mesfin Tafesse & Associates

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Carefully review along with their advisers the terms of their existing coverage to establish whether business interruption relating to COVID-19 or epidemics generally would be covered or excluded and whether, even if there may be no exclusion from cover, proof of physical loss may affect the ability to recover from insurance.
  2. Going forward, businesses should avoid generic policies and carefully think through the practical risks and losses they are likely to face in an environment where such epidemics and disease outbreaks are no longer ‘black swan’ events and structure their insurance coverage so as to effectively respond to these risks.
  3. Insurers, insured persons and brokers should work together to evaluate whether the present industry standard forms of commercial property and business interruption cover are ‘fit for purpose’ and to consider developing products that address the practical risks that businesses are facing at present and are likely to face in the future. For instance, consideration could be given to cover endorsements that extend cover to a contingent business interruption, that is, cover is extended to a business where its key suppliers (rather than the business itself) suffer physical losses to their property that impairs the supplier’s ability to deliver contracted goods or materials.
  4. Consideration could also be given to extension of cover to situations where although there has been no physical damage, governmental action such as a lockdown order or State of Emergency as part of epidemic containment measures, affects access to or use of the insured’s business premises.

Malawi - Savjani & Co.

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Carefully review along with their advisers the terms of their existing insurance cover to establish whether business interruption relating to COVID-19 or epidemics generally would be covered or excluded from such cover and whether, even if there may be no exclusion from cover, inability to prove physical loss may affect the ability to recover from insurance.
  2. Going forward, businesses should avoid generic policies and carefully think through the practical risks and losses they are likely to face in an environment where such epidemics and disease outbreaks are no longer ‘black swan’ events and structure their insurance coverage so as to effectively respond to these risks.
  3. Insurers, the insured and brokers should work together to evaluate whether the present industry standard forms of commercial property and business interruption cover are ‘fit for purpose’ and to consider developing products that address the practical risks that businesses are facing at present and are likely to face in the future.
  4. For instance, consideration could be given to pursuing endorsements that extend cover to a contingent business interruption, that is, cover is extended to a business where its key suppliers (rather than the business itself) suffer physical losses to their property that impairs the supplier’s ability to deliver contracted goods or materials.
  5. Consideration could also be given to extension of cover to situations where although there has been no physical damage, governmental action such as a lockdown orders as part of epidemic containment measures, affects access to or use of the insured’s business premises.

Rwanda - K. Solutions & Partners

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Carefully review along with their advisers the terms of their existing coverage to establish whether business interruption relating to COVID-19 or epidemics generally would be covered or excluded from cover and whether, even if there may be no exclusion from cover, proof of physical loss may affect the ability to recover from insurance.
  2. Going forward, businesses should avoid generic policies and carefully think through the practical risks and losses they are likely to face in an environment where such epidemics and disease outbreaks are no longer ‘black swan’ events and structure their insurance coverage so as to effectively respond to these risks.
  3. Insurers, insureds and brokers should work together to evaluate whether the present industry standard forms of commercial property and business interruption cover are ‘fit for purpose’ and to consider developing products that address the practical risks that businesses are facing at present and are likely to face in the future.
  4. For instance, consideration could be given to cover endorsements that extend cover to a contingent business interruption, that is, cover is extended to a business where its key suppliers (rather than the business itself) suffer physical losses to their property that impairs the supplier’s ability to deliver contracted goods or materials.
  5. Consideration could also be given to extension of cover to situations where although there has been no physical damage, governmental action, such as a lockdown orders as part of epidemic containment measures, affects access to or use of the insured’s business premises.

Uganda - MMAKS Advocates

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Carefully review the terms of their existing coverage with their insurance broker to establish whether business interruption relating to COVID-19 or epidemics generally would be covered or excluded from cover and whether, even if there may be no exclusion from cover, proof of physical loss may affect the ability to recover from insurance;
  2. Once a business has established the extent of cover under business interruption, then the business must take such steps to minimise risk and exposure to the pandemic as much as possible, for instance through restructurings, and also manage the costs or mitigate losses in view of the exposure to the pandemic.
  3. Going forward, businesses should avoid generic policies and carefully think through the practical risks and losses they are likely to face in an environment where such epidemics and disease outbreaks are no longer ‘black swan’ events and structure their insurance coverage so as to effectively respond to these risks;
  4. Insurers, insureds and brokers should work together to evaluate whether the present industry standard forms of property damage and business interruption cover are ‘fit for purpose’ and to consider developing products that address the practical risks that businesses are facing at present and are likely to face in the future;
  5. For instance, consideration could be given to cover endorsements that extend cover to a contingent business interruption, that is, where cover is extended to a business whose key suppliers (rather than the business itself) suffer physical losses to their property thus impairing the supplier’s ability to deliver contracted goods or materials;
  6. Consideration could also be given to extension of cover to situations where, although there has been no physical damage, governmental action such as a lockdown orders as part of epidemic containment measures affect access to or use of the insured’s business premises.

Zambia - Musa Dudhia & Co.

  1. Since the type of policies and language used in the policies are key to understanding whether losses will be covered by a particular insurance policy, holders of insurance will need to carefully review their policies.  Where policies do not cover the current pandemic, a review will be beneficial to any business as it will be better prepared for future COVID 19 related risk.
  2. Currently, it appears bBusiness interruption is mainly generally a rider on the main policies such as a commercial property insurance in Zambia. Going forward, Bbusinesses, therefore, need to be more proactive and engage with their brokers and insurers in a bid to influence the creation for stand-alone business interruption insurance which would cover unexpected major events or pandemics such as COVID 19.
  3. Additionally,As since stand-alone business interruption insurance appears not to be provided in the Zambian market, businesses may have to consider placing such kind of insurance outside Zambia. In the event that they decide to do so, businesses would have to engage with the Pensions and Insurance Authority in accordance with the requirements set out under the Insurance Act No. 27 of 1997.to procure the relevant approvals.

General

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Carefully review along with their advisers the terms of their existing coverage to establish whether business interruption relating to COVID-19 or epidemics generally would be covered or excluded from cover and whether, even if there may be no exclusion from cover, whether proof of physical loss may affect the ability to recover from insurance.
  2. Going forward, businesses should avoid generic policies and carefully think through the practical risks and losses they are likely to face in an environment where such epidemics and disease outbreaks are no longer ‘black swan’ events and structure their insurance coverage so as to effectively respond to these risks.
  3. Insurers, insureds and brokers should work together to evaluate whether the present industry standard forms of commercial property and business interruption cover are ‘fit for purpose’ and to consider developing products that address the practical risks that businesses are facing at present and are likely to face in the future.
  4. For instance, consideration could be given to cover endorsements that extend cover to a contingent business interruption, that is, cover is extended to a business where its key suppliers (rather than the business itself) suffer physical losses to their property that impairs the supplier’s ability to deliver contracted goods or materials.
  5. Consideration could also be given to extension of cover to situations where although there has been no physical damage, governmental action such as a lockdown orders as part of epidemic containment measures, affects access to or use of the insured’s business premises.

In the case of Insurance Premium Financing Arrangements, if the client does not meet his monthly payments, would the insurers be called upon to cancel the policies and refund the premium due?

Algeria - Bourabiat Associés

Insurance Premium Financing Agreements are not common in Algeria.

Mauritius - BLC Robert & Associates

The Mauritius Civil Code provides for a mechanism to cancel policies. A first notice requesting payment has to be sent, and it is only if this first notice is not complied with that the insurance policy can be cancelled for non-payment.

Nigeria - G.Elias & Co.

Payment of premium on a monthly basis is not the practice in Nigeria, where premiums are paid once yearly. Irrespective of what may be obtainable in practice, Nigerian law envisages full payment of the premium as a condition precedent to there being a valid contract of insurance and stipulates that in law there shall be no cover in respect of an insurance risk unless the premium is paid in advance. Hence, where there has been no full payment of the premium, there will be no insurance cover in place and whatever may have been agreed by the parties and the payments made thereunder shall be null and void and not recognized by the law. Section 50(1) of the Insurance Act, 2003.

Uganda - MMAKS Advocates

Yes, the Insurance Act 2017 requires insurers to cancel policies where the premium is not paid within 60 (sixty) days of falling due.

Insurance Premium Financing Agreements will typically include:

  1. a right for the bank to procure the cancellation of the policy if the insured/borrower defaults in repayment of the premium financing facility; and
  2. an acknowledgement by the insurance company that if the bank procures the termination of the policy as above, then the insurer would refund to the bank a pro rata portion of the unutilised premium.

Zambia - Musa Dudhia & Co.

Yes and no.
Whether or not an insurer would be called upon to cancel a policy and refund the premium where a client does not meet their monthly payments would be dependent on the terms of the premium financing arrangements entered into between the parties. In general, Premium Financing Arrangements shift the risk from the insurer to the financier such that the insurance policy remains in force and the financier is left to pursue the debt from the insured, however the terms of the financing may push the entire risk to the insured.

General

Yes, the Insurance Premium Financing Agreements will typically include:

  1. a right for the bank to procure the cancellation of the policy if the insured/borrower defaults in repayment of the premium financing facility; and
  2. an acknowledgement by the insurance company that if the bank procures the termination of the policy as above, then the insurer would refund to the bank a pro rata portion of the unutilized premium.

How should businesses respond to supply chain disruption?

Uganda - MMAKS Advocates

Businesses should do the following:

  1. Review their policies (with particular focus on exclusions) together with their insurance brokers to ascertain whether their key suppliers are included in their insurance cover. In the event that they are not included, they should renegotiate these policies to have them included, going forward; and
  2. Liaise with their existing suppliers to mitigate loses for instance by renegotiating more favourable terms or make claims with their respective insurers to indemnify their losses, where applicable.

Zambia - Musa Dudhia & Co.

In the context of insurance, we are of the view that businesses should consider whether their current insurance policies cover an eventuality such as supply chain disruption and if so whether they can make a claim from such insurers. Further, subject to contractual arrangements between the business and the supplier, businesses may have other options for claiming compensation for such an interruption.

UAE - Anjarwalla Collins & Haidermota

In relation to insurance, we are of the view that businesses should consider whether their current insurance policies cover an eventuality such as supply chain disruption and if so, they could make a claim from such insurers. Further, subject to contractual arrangements between the business and the supplier, businesses may have other options for claiming compensation for the interruption.

Contacts

Apollo Makubuya

Apollo Makubuya

Partner, MMAKS Advocates

Arshad Dudhia

Arshad Dudhia

Managing Partner, Musa Dudhia & Co.

Eric Cyaga

Eric Cyaga

Partner, K. Solutions & Partners

Fiona Magona

Fiona Magona

Partner, MMAKS Advocates

Foued Bourabiat

Foued Bourabiat

Managing Partner, Bourabiat Associés

Francisco Avillez

Francisco Avillez

Managing Partner, ABCC

Fred Onuobia

Fred Onuobia

Managing Partner, G.Elias & Co.

Geofrey Dimoso

Geofrey Dimoso

Partner, A&K Tanzania

Ian Gaitta

Ian Gaitta

Partner, Anjarwalla & Khanna

Iqbal Rajahbalee

Iqbal Rajahbalee

Partner, BLC Robert & Associates

Isaac Walukagga

Isaac Walukagga

Partner, MMAKS Advocates

Julien Kavuruganda

Julien Kavuruganda

Partner, K. Solutions & Partners

Karim Anjarwalla

Karim Anjarwalla

Partner, Anjarwalla & Khanna

Krishna Savjani

Krishna Savjani

Managing Partner, Savjani & Co.

Mesfin Tafesse

Mesfin Tafesse

Principal Attorney, Mesfin Tafesse & Associates

Romain Frédéric Rabillard

Romain Frédéric Rabillard

Partner, BFR & Associés

Rosa Nduati-Mutero

Rosa Nduati-Mutero

Partner, Anjarwalla & Khanna

Sahondra Rabenarivo

Sahondra Rabenarivo

Managing Partner, Madagascar Law Office

Salimatou Diallo

Salimatou Diallo

Partner, SD Avocats

Shemane Amin

Shemane Amin

Partner, A&K Tanzania

Wangui Kaniaru

Wangui Kaniaru

Partner, Anjarwalla & Khanna